European Walnut is named after the country or origin e.g. English, French, Italian, Circassian, Persian walnut, etc.
It is distributed in Europe, including the UK, Asia Minor and South West Asia.
The colour of the heartwood varies according to origin. It is usually a grey-brown shade with sections of darker colouring; irregularly distributed as streaks, of smoky-brown. The grain is straight to wavy, with a rather coarse texture. The timber sometimes forms a well-defined central core. The weight averages at 640 kg/m3 (40 1b/ft3) and the specific gravity is .64.
Walnut has medium bending strength and resistance to shock loads, high crushing strength and low stiffness. It has a very good steam bending classification.
The material seasons well but slowly and drying should not be forced as there is a tendency for honeycomb checks to develop in thicker material. There is a medium movement in service.
This timber works easily with both hand and machine tools, it finishes cleanly with only a moderate blunting effect on cutting edges, also. Nailing and screwing is good, the gluing is satisfactory and the material polishes to a high finish.
This timber is moderately durable. The sapwood is liable to attack by powder post and the common furniture beetle. The logs are liable to longhorn and Buprestid beetle attack. The heartwood is resistant to preservative treatment, but the sapwood is permeable.
It is used in the solid and veneer form for high-class furniture, cabinetmaking, bank and office fitting, gunstocks, carving, doors, capping in cars and sports goods. It is cut into veneer in several forms to provide flat cut veneers for plywood faces and stump wood. Burr veneers are used for panelling and cabinet work.